mppt solar charge controller

The Te-MPPT-0124-30 Solar Maximum power point tracking algorithm solar charge controller to get the maximum possible power from one or more solar panels solar cells have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, Temperature and total resistance that produces a non linear output efficiency known as the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the cells and apply the proper the battery charging to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions

As shown in Fig.1 for atypical solar panel exposed to full sunlight, the output ranges from maximum current when the output is shorted (Isc) to maximum voltage when the output is open circuit (Voc). For atypical 120W 12V panel, Isc is 7014A and Voc is 21.8V. But the maximum power from a 120W panel is at 6.74A and 17.8V which is hardly a suitable match for a lead-acid battery/Tubular Battery

If we were to connect that 120W solar panel directly to the battery, the charge current would be about 7.1A at 12V (85.2W), 7.05A at 13V (91.7W) and 7A at 14.4V (10W), i.e., much less than the 120W available from the solar panel at 17.8V  

By contrast, MPPT keeps the solar panel current and voltage at the maximum power point while charging the battery, even though the battery voltage is lower than the solar panel voltage.

This is achieved by an intelligent switch mode step-down voltage converter. To see how this works, refer to the block diagram of Fig.2 bellow. Current from the solar panel flows through diode D1 and Mosfet Q1 is on, current (i1) flows through inductor L1 into capacitor C2 and the battery. This stores energy in the inductor’s magnetic field.

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